The Physician Assistant Life

The Audio PANCE and PANRE Board Review Podcast Episode 25

Episode 25 The Audio PANCE and PANRE Board Review Podcast They Physician Assistant LifeWelcome to episode 25 of the FREE Audio PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant Board Review Podcast.

The Audio PANCE and PANRE is an audio board review series that includes 10 Multiple Choice PANCE and PANRE Board Review Questions in each episode.

I hope you enjoy this free audio component to the examination portion of this site. The full series is available to all members of the PANCE and PANRE Academy.

  • You can download and listen to past FREE episodes here, on iTunes or Stitcher Radio.
  • You can listen to the latest episode, download the transcript and take an interactive quiz of the questions below.

adobe pdfDownload the FREE PDF transcript for FREE here or on Scribd.

Listen Carefully Then Take The Quiz

If you can't see the audio player click here to listen to the full episode.

Questions 1-10

The Audio PANCE and PANRE Episode 25

1. Which of the following conditions will produce a transudative pleural effusion?

A. Kaposi's sarcoma
B. Pneumonia
C. Cirrhosis
D. Mesothelioma

Click here to see the answer

2. Which of the following pathophysiological processes is believed to initiate acute appendicitis?

A. Obstruction
B. Perforation
C. Hemorrhage
D. Vascular compromise

Click here to see the answer

3. A 23 year-old female with a history of palpitations presents for evaluation. She admits to acute onset of rapid heart beating lasting seconds to minutes with associated shortness of breath and chest pain. The patient states she can relieve her symptoms with Valsalva. Which of the following is the most appropriate diagnostic study to establish a definitive diagnosis in this patient?

A. Cardiac catheterization
B. Cardiac MRI
C. Chest CT scan
D. Electrophysiology study

Click here to see the answer

4. A known alcoholic presents to the emergency department with altered level of consciousness and a blood glucose level of 35 mg/dL. Which of the following best explains this glucose result?

A. Excess pancreatic insulin release
B. Rapid carbohydrate discharge into the small bowel
C. Agonist insulin receptor antibody formation
D. Hepatic glycogen depletion and impaired gluconeogenesis

Click here to see the answer

5. Which of the following is the chief adverse effect of thiazide diuretics?

A. Hypokalemia
B. Hypernatremia
C. Hypocalcemia
D. Hypermagnesemia

Click here to see the answer

6. The most distinctive sign of pertussis is

A. stridor without cough.
B. productive cough with basilar rales.
C. loose cough with coarse rhonchi.
D. paroxysmal cough with crowing inspiration.

Click here to see the answer

7. The finding of egophony is most consistent with

A. emphysema.
B. atelectasis.
C. pneumothorax.
D. lobar pneumonia

Click here to see the answer

8. A patient presents with edema, which is most noticeable in the hands and face. Laboratory findings include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. The most likely diagnosis is

A. congestive heart failure.
B. end-stage liver disease.
C. nephrotic syndrome.
D. malnutrition.

Click here to see the answer

9. The best course of action for a patient with a bothersome inflamed pinguecula (pingueculitis) is

A. antibiotic drops.
B. excision.
C. Visine drops.
D. no treatment.

Click here to see the answer

10. An immunocompromised patient presents with signs and symptoms consistent with Legionella pneumophila who has not responded to initial antibiotic therapy with a macrolide. Which of the following should be added?

A. Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
B. Rifampin (Rifadin)
C. Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
D. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin)

Click here to see the answer

Looking for all the episodes?

This FREE series is limited to every other episode, you can download and enjoy the complete audio series by joining The PANCE and PANRE Exam Academy.

I will be be releasing new episodes every two weeks. The Academy is currently discounted, so sign up now.

PANCE PREP PEARLSResources and Show Notes:

This Podcast is also available on iTunes and Stitcher Radio for Android

  1. iTunes: The Audio PANCE AND PANRE Podcast iTunes
  2. Stitcher Radio: The Audio PANCE and PANRE Podcast Stitcher

itunes_logo-1


While you are over there, download and subscribe to Brian Wallaces' excellent Physician Assistant Exam Review Podcast. Follow along with Brian who covers new topics twice monthly and really does an amazing job!

Cheers,

Stephen Pasquini PA-C

Scholarships, Grants and Loan Repayment Programs for Physician Assistants

How to Bankroll PA School Without Going BrokeIt goes without saying, PA school is expensive.

PA school is also demanding, which means you will have limited time (if any) to work while attending school.

With the average undergraduate education debt prior to PA school at $36,300 and the average anticipated debt load from PA school at $75,000-$124,000, it is important that you have a rock-solid plan for how you are going to pay for your PA school education.

Funding sources vary and federal loan programs will probably form the foundation of your assistance package, many states also offer financial aid funding.

Additionally, there are specialized scholarships, traineeships, and loan programs available. Remember — apply the resources from scholarships and grants before you accept loans. Then, only accept loans that you need.

Work closely with your financial aid department. They will be able to inform you about special loans and scholarships for which you may be eligible.

Federal and State Resources

  • Numerous loans and grants guaranteed by the federal government are available to qualified students. Visit the website for Federal Student Aid sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education.
  • State sources of financial assistance include an agency in each state that guarantees federal student loans. Also, some states offer their own educational assistance programs with loans or grants. Check with your financial aid office to locate the office(s) in your home state.
  • Tax Credits are another option to explore.                                                  

Scholarships and Traineeships

  • Americorps is a national network of hundreds of programs throughout the U.S. and is open to U.S. citizens, nationals, or lawful permanent residents aged 17 or older. This program helps pay for education in exchange for a year of service.
  • The Indian Health Service scholarship program provides financial assistance for American Indian and Alaskan Native (federally recognized only) students enrolled in health professions and allied health professions programs.
  • The National Health Service Corps Program is a competitive federal program. Students dedicated to practicing primary care in communities of greatest need can compete for educational scholarships.
  • The Physician Assistant Foundation offers competitive scholarships for PA students who are currently attending an accredited PA program, are in the professional phase of the program, and are student members of AAPA. Visit the Foundation web pages for a current application.
  • The United States Navy Health Services Collegiate Program is designed to provide financial incentives for college students in designated health care professions while completing baccalaureate degree requirements.
  • The U.S. Army Health Care team, offers a three-year loan repayment program for any PA- C who wants to serve as an Army PA.
  • PAs for Latino Health (PALH), a caucus of the AAPA, offers a $500 scholarship to currently enrolled PA students each year.

Loans, Repayment Programs, and Consolidation Services

  • The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) Loan Repayment Program is available to PAs in primary care or current students who plan to become primary care providers after graduation. You must agree to provide primary care services in a priority health professional shortage area for a minimum of two years.
  • Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program: The Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) Program forgives the remaining balance on your Direct Loans after you have made 120 qualifying monthly payments under a qualifying repayment plan while working full-time for a qualifying employer. Physician assistants qualify.
    • IMPORTANT: Loan forgiveness is an option after 10 years of payments, but it may not be an option if you refinance your loan during that period. So make sure you read the fine print!
  • Sallie Mae Tuition Pay Plans provide quality, low-cost, innovative solutions to paying for education. Tuition Pay is an interest-free plan that lets you break down the large lump-sum payments due at the beginning of each semester into easy-to-manage installments.
  • Common Bond: Ever wished your student loans could have a positive effect on society? Common Bond seeks to "reimagine finance based on our belief that business has a responsibility to further social good and promote welfare outside of its immediate customer base." Common Bond is unique in that they bring a 1-for-1 model to education through Social Promise. For every fully funded degree on the CommonBond platform, they fund the education of a student in need for one year through the nonprofit Pencils of Promise. They even fund a trip to Ghana with Pencils of Promise so that borrowers (and employees) can go and meet some of the children who the Social Promise has helped to fund.

Insider's tip: Looking to refinance? Magnify Money is a wonderful website that lets you compare and contrast student loan options.  Just beware that if you have federal loans, refinancing to private loans may result in losing protections like special repayment plans (such as the public loan forgiveness program) that can help you in a time of need. Make sure you can comfortably afford your new payments if you refinance. And take the time to get rates from several providers.

AAPA Constituent Organization Scholarships

  • The Physician Assistant Foundation offers competitive scholarships for PA students who are currently attending an accredited PA program, are in the professional phase of the program, and are student members of AAPA. Visit the Foundation website for a current application.  Here are some of their current offerings. The 38 PA students who were awarded scholarships during the 2014 application cycle are listed here.
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb Endowed Scholarship — four $2,500 awards
    • National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA) Endowed Scholarship — six $2,000 awards
    • Procter & Gamble Endowed Scholarship — six $1,000 awards
    • AAPA Rural Health Caucus Scholarship — two $2,000 awards to students from a rural area, who are committed to serving a rural community.
    • Ron Pace Memorial Scholarship — one $1,000 award to Florida-based students who are veterans and in their second year of PA school. Named in memory of Ron Pace, a Florida Academy of Physician Assistants past president and AAPA Outstanding PA of the Year Award recipient, who served in the U.S. Navy for 20 years.
  • Association of Physician Assistants in Oncology offers a $2,500 award for PA students. The award consists of two parts: $500 to help with travel to AAPA's Annual Conference to receive the award and $2,000 (unrestricted). Apply by March 1st.
  • California Academy of Physician Assistants offers three annual student scholarships for student members. Apply online by December 31.
  • Lesbian, Bisexual, and Gay Physician Assistant Caucus offers $1,000 grants for two PA students to attend AAPA's Annual Conference to help foster involvement and awareness of the caucus within the AAPA. Apply by January 15.
  • Pennsylvania Society of Physician Assistants has six annual student leadership scholarships and three scholarships for students who choose to enter the writing competition. Apply online by June 30.
  • Physician Assistant Academy of Vermont offers a scholarship of $1,000 and free attendance at the annual PAAV Winter CME conference for PA students who are residents of Vermont. Apply by June 30.
  • Physician Assistants in Orthopedic Surgery offers one or two $500 scholarships from the Susan Lindahl Memorial Scholarship Fund, established to encourage young PA students to enter the field of orthopedics. Apply by August 15.
  • The Society of Army Physician Assistants honors the memory of Captain Sean P. Grimes, through the Captain Sean P. Grimes Physician Assistant Educational Scholarship Award. Apply by February 1st.
  • The AAPA Veterans Caucus Scholarship seeks to recognize the achievements of an outstanding veteran of one of the seven branches of the Uniformed Services who is currently enrolled in a PA program.

Note: Grants are similar to scholarships, and availability is based on resources and financial need. When you submit your FAFSA form, you will be considered for Pell Grants.

Also, check your place of employment, organizations and place of worship for any grants for which you may be eligible.

Scholarships and Grants Awarded by the AAPA

They are all due January 15, 2015.

  • Student Academy Outstanding Student Society
    • Description: This award recognizes three student societies for their outstanding service to the profession.
    • How to apply: Download the Student Academy Outstanding Student Society Award application
    • Award/Prize: $500 for each of the three top placing programs
    • Additional details: All of these student societies documented their work in the following categories: public education and advocacy of the profession, public service and outreach, promotion of the diversity and professional involvement. Seventy-five percent membership is required to participate in this award.
  • Student Academy Travel Grant Awards
    • Description: A $500 grant for AOR student society representatives and Student Academy selected HOD student delegates or alternates to minimize travel expenses to the annual conference.
    • Eligibility Criteria: HOD students must be one of the selected students; all applicants should be members of AAPA
    • How to apply: Download the Student Academy Travel Grant application
  • Student Academy PA Student Mentor Award
    • Description: This award recognizes a PA who has demonstrated exemplary service to PA students and has furthered the leadership, educational, and professional development of PA students.
    • Eligibility Criteria: none specified
    • How to apply or nominate someone: Download the Student Academy PA Student Mentor Award application
  • Student Academy PAragon Student Award
    • Description: This award honors a PA student who has demonstrated exemplary service as a PA student.
    • Eligibility Criteria: Need at least 5 applicants; student should be a member of AAPA
    • How to apply or nominate someone: Download the Student Academy PAragon Student Award application

If you have any questions about these scholarships and grants, you can contact the Student Academy Staff at the following email address: students@aapa.org.

Unites States Military Service and Loan Repayment Programs

  • National Guard Healthcare Bonuses and Loans
    • Physician Assistants and Social Workers:
      • $20,000 per year for a three-year contract
      • $15,000 per year for a two-year contract
      • $10,000 per year for a one-year contract
  • National Guard Student Loan Repayment Program
    • Must have 1 or more qualifying and disbursed Title IV federal loans
    • State and private loans are ineligible for repayment
    • PLUS loans are eligible
    • Loans must be listed on the Department of Education National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS) aid summary website
    • Must enlist for a minimum 6 year term of service
    • Must enlist for a critical skills (CS) vacancy in the grade of E-4 or below
    • Information:
      • Payments will not exceed $50,000 with annual repayments not to exceed the maximum amount established by law
      • Must enlist into a qualifying position in an MTOE or Medical TDA unit only
      • Must score a minimum of 50 on the Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT)
  • Navy Clinical Care Provider
    • To qualify for Active Duty employment consideration as a Physician Assistant in the Navy Medical Service Corps, you must meet these basic requirements:
      • Be a U.S. citizen currently practicing in the U.S.
      • Bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university
        Completion of a physician assistant education program approved by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA)
      • Certification by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA)
      • Be willing to serve a minimum of three years of Active Duty
      • Be between the ages of 18 and 41
      • Be in good physical condition and pass a full medical examination
      • General qualifications may vary depending upon whether you intend to serve Active Duty or Reserve Duty, and whether you are currently serving, have served before or have never served before.

References:

The Today Show recently had a very good program about loan refinancing and avoiding debt. Take a look at the video here and review their 7 ways to stop loans from ruining your life.

The Audio PANCE and PANRE Board Review Podcast Episode 23

EPISODE 23 THE AUDIO PANCE AND PANRE PODCASTWelcome to episode 23 of the FREE Audio PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant Board Review Podcast.

The Audio PANCE and PANRE is an audio board review series that includes 10 Multiple Choice PANCE and PANRE Board Review Questions in each episode.

I hope you enjoy this free audio component to the examination portion of this site. The full series is available to all members of the PANCE and PANRE Academy.

  • You can download and listen to past FREE episodes here, on iTunes or Stitcher Radio.
  • You can listen to the latest episode, download the transcript and take an interactive quiz of the questions below.

adobe pdfDownload the FREE PDF transcript for FREE here or on  Scribd.

Listen Carefully Then Take The Quiz

If you can't see the audio player click here to listen to the full episode.

Questions 1-10

The Audio PANCE and PANRE Episode 23

1. A 72 year-old female presents with vulvular pruritus for the last nine months, which has progressively worsened over the last two months. She states that she went through menopause at age 54 and has been on estrogen and progesterone therapy since that time. Physical examination reveals red lesions with white plaques on the vulva. What should the next course of management include?

A. Refer to a gynecologist for biopsy.

B. Refer to a dermatologist for antifungal therapy.

C. Treat with a topical steroid.

D. Treat with estrogen cream.

Click here to see the answer

2. A 30 year-old female presents to the emergency department with a syncopal episode. She has a history of irregular menstrual cycles and infertility. She has scanty, persistent vaginal bleeding and sharp pelvic pain. A left adnexal mass is palpated. The most likely diagnosis is

A. placenta abruptio.

B. ectopic pregnancy.

C. pelvic inflammatory disease.

D. ruptured ovarian cyst.

Click here to see the answer

3. A patient presents complaining of periumbilical pain. Which of the following anatomical sites is this finding associated with?

A. Bladder

B. Stomach

C. Pancreas

D. Small bowel

Click here to see the answer

4. A 53 year-old patient presents with severe pain at the base of the thumb and no other finger involvement. The pain is worse with activity and lasts a short period of time following rest. There is no specific history of trauma to the thumb but the patient admits working with her hands as a typist. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

A. Rheumatoid arthritis

B. Osteoarthritis

C. Hemochromatosis

D. Pseudogout

Click here to see the answer

5. A 38 year-old female with history of coarctation of the aorta repair at the age of two presents with fevers for four weeks. The patient states that she has felt fatigued and achy during this time. Maximum temperature has been 102.1 degrees F. She denies cough, congestion, or other associated symptoms. Physical examination reveals a pale tired appearing female in no acute distress. Heart reveals a new grade III-IV/VI systolic ejection border at the apex, and a II/VI diastolic murmur at the right sternal border. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A. Acute myocardial infarction

B. Bacterial endocarditis

C. Acute pericarditis

D. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Click here to see the answer

6. A 45 year-old male presents with abdominal pain and one episode of mild hematemesis, which happened days ago. On physical examination, vital signs are stable and he is in no acute distress. Hemoglobin and hematocrit are unremarkable; endoscopy reveals non-bleeding small superficial ulceration of the duodenal bulb. Rapid urease test is positive. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment at this time?

A. Schedule for a selective vagotomy and antrectomy

B. Start an antacid along with omeprazole (Prilosec)

C. Schedule elective ulcer excision and start sucralfate (Carafate)

D. Start omeprazole (Prilosec) and antibiotic therapy against H. pylori

Click here to see the answer

7. Which of the following findings is usually associated with Addison's disease?

A. Weight gain

B. Hypertension

C. Increased pigmentation

D. High plasma cortisol levels

Click here to see the answer

8. A 60 year-old patient with COPD characteristic of emphysema presents with a cough and increased sputum production. The following information is noted: Temperature 100°F (37.8°C); Respiratory rate 20/min; Heart rate 88 beats/min; pH 7.44; PaO2 75 mmHg; PaCO2 40 mmHg; O2 saturation 92%. Physical examination is remarkable for increased AP diameter, diminished breath sounds without wheezes, rhonchi, or other signs of respiratory distress. Which of the following would be an appropriate treatment for this patient?

A. Broad-spectrum antibiotic

B. Admission to the hospital

C. Oxygen at 6 L/min by nasal cannula

D. Brief course of oral theophylline

Click here to see the answer

9. Which of the following physical findings suggest pernicious anemia?

A. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly

B. Petechiae and ecchymosis

C. Loss of position and vibratory sensation

D. Cheilosis and koilonychia

Click here to see the answer

10. A 60 year-old male presents with a normochromic, normocytic anemia and splenomegaly. His past history reveals several episodes of bacterial pneumonia in the past year. The WBC count is 43,000 mm3 with 25% segmented neutrophils, 3% blasts, 70% mature lymphocytes, 1% basophils, and 1% eosinophils. This most likely represents

A. myelodysplastic syndrome.

B. acute lymphocytic leukemia.

C. chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

D. chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Click here to see the answer

Looking for all the episodes?

This FREE series is limited to every other episode, you can download and enjoy the complete audio series by joining The PANCE and PANRE Exam Academy.

I will be be releasing new episodes every two weeks. The Academy is currently discounted, so sign up now.

This Podcast is also available on iTunes and Stitcher Radio for Android

  1. iTunes: The Audio PANCE AND PANRE Podcast iTunes
  2. Stitcher Radio: The Audio PANCE and PANRE Podcast Stitcher

itunes_logo-1


While you are over there, download and subscribe to Brian Wallaces' excellent Physician Assistant Exam Review Podcast. Follow along with Brian who covers new topics twice monthly and really does an amazing job!

Cheers,

Stephen Pasquini PA-C

Physician Assistant Personal Statement Workshop: “To say I was an accident-prone child is an understatement”

The Physician Assistant Personal Statemeent Workshop Essay 8 - To say I was an accident-prone child is an understatement

In this latest installment of the personal statement workshop, we continue to pull essays submitted from the comments section through our free essay submission process and provide you, and our users, with a more detailed analysis of their essays.

This submission is by Katie, whose life experiences combined with a traumatic injury at the age of 13, are what inspired her to want to become a physician assistant.

We will present you with her original essay and our suggestions.

As always, use this as a guide to see where you can improve your own writing, and respect the work of others. It should go without saying this is not your essay, so don’t plagiarize.

Personal Statement Workshop: "To say I was an accident-prone child is an understatement."

By: Katie

100px-Essay.svg“To say I was an accident-prone child is an understatement. I frequented doctors’ offices and emergency rooms for a variety of injuries and ailments. I remember staying home sick from elementary school, curling up on the sofa to watch marathons of “Medical Mysteries” and “Trauma: Life in the ER”. My squeamish parents were somewhat disgusted by my gruesome choice of entertainment and were puzzled by my infatuation with medicine. Even so, my interest and enthusiasm for medical care persisted.

In 2006, after I was involved in a serious golf cart accident, I knew for certain that I would pursue a career in healthcare. I suffered extensive injuries after being ejected from the vehicle, run over, and dragged along the pavement. I remember the rushed atmosphere and commotion of the emergency room as I lay there feeling shocked by the gravity of the situation. Then, Michelle walked in, a smiling brunette clad in a crisp white coat. I assumed she was a physician as she explained the imaging procedures and tests I would soon undergo. She addressed me not as a naïve thirteen-year-old but simply as a concerned patient. She answered all my questions and stayed engaged in our conversation even as she performed an intra-articular injection to determine if my knee joint had been compromised. I was in awe at the combination of her technical proficiency and calm disposition. Not until years later, after attending a physician assistant symposium in college, did I realize Michelle was a physician assistant.

After my accident, my passion for medicine persisted. In high school, I enrolled in Honors Anatomy and Physiology and was fascinated by the field trips to watch an open-heart surgery and visit a cadaver lab. My teachers noted my enthusiasm for the subject and nominated me to attend a medical leadership conference at Georgetown University. When selecting a college major, I chose Nutritional Sciences because of the strong focus on biological science; it also provided a unique perspective on clinical work and emphasized the critical thinking skills necessary in practice. I worked assiduously because I knew exemplary academics were necessary when applying to graduate programs. However, despite struggling with a personal crisis during my sophomore year, I was determined not to let one semester mar the academic record I had worked so hard to achieve. I made significant changes in my life and learned how to maximize my academic potential while managing stress in a healthy way. This experience was a critical point of self-exploration, and I am confident it was an important step in preparing me for the rigors of PA school.

Once I was comfortable managing the challenges of a science-heavy course load, I began to focus on gaining more experience working in healthcare. Although my interest to learn the intricacies of medicine was undeniable, I was still unsure about which career would be the best fit for me. I spoke with doctors, nurses, and PAs to determine the differences between these types of practitioners. While trying to make a decision, I repeatedly thought of Michelle, my earliest inspiration. I saw clearly that compared to other healthcare professionals, PAs have a unique opportunity to build a rapport with their patients by getting to know them on a personal level, which is what I value most.

However, it was not until I became a certified nursing assistant at an assisted living facility that I truly understood how much I valued being a part of someone’s healing process. Initially, I saw the job as an opportunity to work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals, but I realized quickly the magnitude of this experience was much greater than I anticipated. It is remarkable to watch the aging process unfold and see the devastating progression of diseases. It is my responsibility to not only provide care to the residents, but also to be vigilant about changes in their condition, to be compassionate about the struggles they endure in light of their impending mortality, and to listen to them when nobody else will. These moments make me realize what an honor it is to be a healthcare provider.

Although my academic journey has always been aimed towards a career in medicine, my unique life experiences are what inspired me to become a physician assistant. The PA profession encompasses my passion for scientific knowledge and my desire to build relationships with patients. Pursuing such a fulfilling and exciting career leaves me with a profound sense of purpose and the definitive notion I will be a successful physician assistant.

Suggestions and Revisions

By: Sue Edmondson

Note: These are very brief suggestions and revisions offered through our free submissions process in the comments section. For a full-featured edit of your personal statement, please see our paid service offerings

analysis

Hi Katie,

I like the image of you as a kid watching medical shows on TV, but for purposes of this essay, you’re taking up valuable space that could be used to talk about your healthcare experiences in more detail. When I interviewed Admissions Directors and faculty from across the country, every person said they weren’t interested in hearing childhood experiences. I’d delete the entire first paragraph of your essay.

Your second paragraph is good (skip the brunette in your description of Michelle — it’s a wasted word).

The third paragraph needs editing — it reads well, but it has extra verbiage that has little significance. Remember, the people reading your essay are literally reading more than a thousand so save words where you can. And the word passion is so overused, it’s meaningless. I rarely recommend using it.

This is what I’d do in an edit:

“My interest in medicine persisted. When selecting a college major, I chose Nutritional Sciences because of the strong focus on biological science; it also provided a unique perspective on clinical work and emphasized the critical thinking skills necessary in practice. Despite struggling with a personal crisis during my sophomore year, I was determined not to let one semester mar the academic record I had worked so hard to achieve. I made significant changes and learned how to manage stress in a healthy way. This experience was a critical point of self-exploration, and I am confident it was an important step in preparing me for the rigors of PA school.”

Use the extra space to elaborate a bit more on why you’re choosing to be a PA as opposed to any other health care professional.

Best of luck.

Sue Edmondson Physician Assistant Essay CollaboratveSue Edmondson - editor - the physician assistant personal statement collaborative.

Is your mom or dad really giving you honest feedback on your personal statement?

Parents are full of great advice, but when it comes to your personal statement family and friends don't always make the best editorial team.

mom giving adviceWe offer a bit of free guidance to anyone who takes the time to submit their essay in the comments section of the blog. But your essay needs more than the sympathetic feedback provided by a friendly relative.

Our Essay Review Service Includes:

  1. Personal guidance from our team of professional (unbiased) writers, with inside knowledge of the PA school personal statement. (We have personally interviewed 12 of the top PA school admissions directors from across the country.)
  2. Telephone consultations are included with all purchases above the single edit level. It's often hard to communicate exactly what you want hundreds of miles away; for this reason, we offer the option to edit right alongside us over the telephone while sharing in real-time over Google Docs.
  3. We provide feedback, advice and help with brainstorming and topic creation.
  4. We will help with a "final touch up" before the big day just in case your essay needs a bit of polish.

Interested? Click here to learn more.

Here is what one of our recent clients had to say: 

Awesome service. Duke did a great job editing my personal statement - his feedback was top notch. For the 2014-2015 cycle, I applied to one school. I was selected for an interview and yesterday I received an offer of admission ... which I quickly accepted. I know my Personal Statement played a huge role in my success. I highly recommend this service.Nikki R. PA-S

We are currently accepting essays in all iterations. We have flexible pricing and can do everything from a single one-time edit to a full-service review that will take you from beginning to a finished product.  Hurry, as we can only accept a few essays each month.

Click here to post your essay or learn more about our service.

Have you enjoyed what you read?

I hope you have been enjoying this personal statement workshop.  Before you go, make sure to sign up for automatic updates from the blog or subscribe with Feedly (my favorite RSS reader).  And if you haven't already, sign up for the FREE email newsletter (down below) or connect with me on Facebook or Twitter.  I’ll definitely respond, and I look forward to meeting you!

Cheers,

Stephen

Physician Assistant Recruiting Video: Spoiler Alert, There’s a Dolphin!

Why become a physician assistant? Find out from a guy with a beard and cool posters. Spoiler alert: there's a dolphin!

Key Points in their order of appearance:

First and foremost it is important to understand that physician assistant is the greatest profession known to humankind!

What do you do? Follow the doctor along all day? Why don't you just go to medical school?

The name is confusing I get it.  Physician assistants work under the supervision of a physician or some fancy legal mumbo jumbo called respondeat superior that means physician assistants can do most and, in some states, almost everything a doctor can do but the doctor is ultimately responsible for the actions of the physician assistant.

They're doctors, they're not doctors, what does a PA even do?

PAs do just about everything a doctor does, including giving medical interviews and performing high "Kuality" physical exams:

Physician-Assistant-Performing-High-Kuality-Physical-Exams

Making diagnoses, ordering and interpreting tests and prescribing medications (warning coffee may not be covered by many insurance providers).

Physician-Assistant-Prescribing-Medications

PAs also assist in surgeries and use penlights (refer to the video for an example of correct penlight usage time 2:38).

So do PAs only work in hospitals? Or what?

You can find PAs working in just about any healthcare setting and in just about any specialty.  The majority work in primary care and many work in rural or inner city areas helping out the medically underserved.

I am already a "fancy" medical professional what does the PA career have to offer me?

Physician-Assistants-are-Fancy-Medical-Professionals

The physician assistant career started in 1965 when there was an influx of people coming back from the Vietnam War who had a lot of medical training.  At the same time there was a critical need for more primary care providers in the United States. So the physician assistant career was designed for people who already have a great deal of medical experience. That way they can become providers quicker and get out and help people much sooner.

As a "fancy pants" medical provider you might be interested in the core competencies that the physician assistant profession has defined for themselves to make sure we get the best patient care.

The American Academy of Physician Assistants defines its core competencies as follows:

  • Medical Knowledge
  • Interpersonal & Communication Skills
  • Patient Care
  • Professionalism
  • Practice-based Learning & Improvement
  • Systems-based Practice

For more information visit aapa.org.

I am just not buying the whole "greatest career known to humankind". What kind of hat-wearing beard-having man would say something like that getting my hopes up?

The Math

Physician-Assistant-Math

The bureau of labor statistics predicts that between 2012 and 2022 there will be a 38% growth in the PA profession, that's much higher than average and I read that in this "fancy pants" book. This is  going to keep going up because doctors are leaving areas where PAs tend to specialize such as primary care. Not to mention the median annual salary for physician assistants is over $90,000.

PAs also report very high levels of job satisfaction, much higher than most other careers so it's a good job.

So how do I do this? I'm in college now what can I expect if I apply to PA school?

PA-School-Secrets-from-a-Physician-Assistant

The best thing you can do if you want to go to PA school is find out about the programs you are interested in. Comb their websites see what their prerequisites are - do they require prior healthcare experience. Hint - They probably do.

It's a good idea to become an EMT of maybe a medical assistant

Then, you will have to go to a school that is accredited by the ARC-PA.

Most accredited programs last 2-3 years and bestow a master's degree upon completion. PA school education is intense!

The first year is called the didactic year and you will take courses on everything from pathophysiology to giving patient exams to completing recruiting videos during your ample spear time. Then, you will go onto the clinical year where you will go to rotations in various fields of medicine then you will sit for the certification exam called the PANCE.

Physician Assistant Taking off his PANCE

PANCE stands for "Physician Assistant National Certification Exam" it's not the things you wear so you don't get arrested.

Pass the PANCE and you will be a PA but you have to recertify every 10 years.

There you have it, why the PA profession is the greatest career known to humankind spoken by a hat wearing beard having man... Who also happens to be a PA student. 

What do you think? Is the PA profession the greatest career known to humankind? If you have an opinion feel free to share it in the comments section.

My hat goes off to Mike West for this hilarious and brilliantly informative video. You rock!

A Surgeon Speaks: 7 Reasons Why You Should Choose PA Over MD

A Fellowship Trained Surgeon Shares 7 Reasons You Should Choose PA over MD

I am a fellowship-trained surgeon.

Besides the financial aspect, the following 7 points will make your decision of PA vs. MD easy:

1.  It takes on an average at least 15 years (after high school) of head in the sand (books) to complete fellowship and reach the $200,000 debt figure that you are quoting.

2.  A 40-50 hour work week is a dream for most MDs. Most of my colleagues work 60 hrs and some up to 80 hours a week.

3.  Not counting the hours after you go home and come back for ’emergencies’.

4.  Family life is a ‘possibility’ for PAs. Look around and see how many MDs have kids before 30. You will be surprised by the small number.

5.  Most of my PA friends work two jobs (totaling 60-80hrs/week), so their salaries go up accordingly. Ever heard of an MD working two jobs. I guess 120-160 hrs/week is kinda difficult. Huh..

6.  PAs work just as well and earn just as much respect by their patients and colleagues.

7.  The only trajectory this trend is going is upwards. Mid-level providers’ need and utilization has been increasing exponentially.

I am totally happy with what I am doing. But if I were to advise an aspiring student for MD vs. PA, I would totally refer him/her to this post. I think the round 1 showdown is won by PAs, not MDs.

- Dr. S

Dr. S is a fellowship trained surgeon who was kind enough to weigh in on the PA vs. MD debate in the comments section of this blog.

What do you think? Is Dr. S spot on or dead wrong? I would love to hear your thoughts in the comments section.  You probably know where I stand on this debate. :-)

The Audio PANCE and PANRE Board Review Podcast Episode 21

Welcome to episode 21 of the FREE Audio PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant Board Review Podcast.

The Audio PANCE and PANRE is an audio board review series that includes 10 Multiple Choice PANCE and PANRE Board Review Questions in each episode.

I hope you enjoy this free audio component to the examination portion of this site. The full series is available to all members of the PANCE and PANRE Academy.

  • You can download and listen to past FREE episodes here, on iTunes or Stitcher Radio.
  • You can listen to the latest episode, download the transcript and take an interactive quiz of the questions below.

adobe pdfDownload the FREE PDF transcript for FREE here or on  Scribd.

Listen Carefully Then Take The Quiz

If you can't see the audio player click here to listen to the full episode.

Questions 1-10

The Audio PANCE and PANRE Episode 21

1. A 28-year-old female, who has experienced occasional painful migratory arthralgias, complains now of a tender, swollen, and hot left ankle. The joint was aspirated and the synovial fluid showed 55,000 WBCs, 75% polymorphonuclear lymphocytes, low glucose level, and no crystals. Which of the following would be the most likely diagnosis?

A. Rheumatoid arthritis
B. Septic arthritis
C. Gouty arthritis
D. Osteoarthritis

Click here to see the answer

2. When the diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis is confirmed, which of the following is the treatment of choice?

A. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
B. Azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose
C. Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM in a single dose PLUS Azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose
D. Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

Click here to see the answer

3. Erythema nodosum is characterized by

A. subcutaneous red tender nodules.
B. brown pigmentation on the lower extremities.
C. tender lymph nodes in the groin.
D. scaling red macules.

Click here to see the answer

4. Use of systemic corticosteroids can cause which of the following adverse effects in the eye?

A. Cortical blindness
B. Optic atrophy
C. Glaucoma
D. Papilledema

Click here to see the answer

5. It is determined that a woman has a nonexistent rubella titer level during her first trimester of pregnancy. When should she receive the rubella vaccine?

A. During the first trimester of pregnancy
B. During the second trimester of pregnancy
C. During the third trimester of pregnancy
D. After delivery of the infant

Click here to see the answer

6. A patient with which of the following is at highest risk for coronary artery disease?

A. Congenital heart disease
B. Polycystic ovary syndrome
C. Acute renal failure
D. Diabetes mellitus

Click here to see the answer

7. A 44-year-old female presents with ongoing arthralgias and myalgias with intermittent flares of arthritis. She is found to have a malar rash that worsens with sun exposure. She is known to have progressive renal damage and has recurrent infections that are slow to respond to therapy. She takes ibuprofen (Motrin) as needed for her joint pain and takes no other medication. Which of the following tests would be the initial test recommended to screen for this diagnosis?

A. Rheumatoid factor
B. Antihistone antibodies
C. Anti-Smith (Anti-Sm) antibodies
D. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA)

Click here to see the answer

8. Upon stroking of the lateral aspect of the sole from the heel to the ball of the foot, the great toe dorsiflexes and the other toes fan. This is a positive

A. Kernig's sign.
B. Brudzinski's sign.
C. Babinski's sign.
D. Gower's sign.

Click here to see the answer

9. Which of the following strategies promotes improved carbohydrate metabolism and is recommended for all Type 2 diabetic patients?

A. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet
B. Routine aerobic exercise
C. Metformin (Glucophage)
D. Acupuncture

Click here to see the answer

10. Acute rebound hypertensive episodes have been reported to occur with the sudden withdrawal of

A. verapamil (Calan).
B. lisinopril (Prinivil).
C. clonidine (Catapres).
D. hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

Click here to see the answer

Looking for all the episodes?

This FREE series is limited to every other episode, you can download and enjoy the complete audio series by joining The PANCE and PANRE Exam Academy.

I will be be releasing new episodes every two weeks. The Academy is currently discounted, so sign up now.

This Podcast is also available on iTunes and Stitcher Radio for Android

  1. iTunes: The Audio PANCE AND PANRE Podcast iTunes
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While you are over there, download and subscribe to Brian Wallaces' excellent Physician Assistant Exam Review Podcast. Follow along with Brian who covers new topics twice monthly and really does an amazing job!

Cheers,

Stephen Pasquini PA-C

Who Gets Into PA School? Here’s What You Need to Know

What Does it Take to Get Into PA School? Here's What You Need to KnowLeslie Mean is a 27 year old single white female who presents to the PA school admissions committee on her first attempt to get into PA school.

She has a 3.5 overall GPA and a 3.4 science GPA. She is holding a bachelors of science degree in biochemistry, had an SAT score in the 1000-1100 range and above average GRE scores.

She has 2 years of hands-on clinical experience working as a CNA and a long history of volunteer work which exemplifies her desire to help her fellow man.

She is kind and considerate and has reference letters which demonstrate her maturity and strong interpersonal skills.

She was accepted into PA school on her first attempt.

Who is Leslie and Why did she get into PA School?

When asking the question: What do I need to do to get into PA school? You would be smart to talk to Leslie.

Leslie is a hypothetical PA school applicant who went on to become a PA school student, a perfectly average PA school student.

She also embodies what PA school's all across the country are looking for at this very moment.

How do I know this?

Because the most recent data from the PAEA semi annual report, representing responses from over 85% of PA programs detailing characteristics of applicants and students enrolled in PA school, show that they are filling their seats with Leslie.

As much as I like to talk about not being average and differentiating yourself from the pack it is good to know what average is. Average provides a baseline by which you can measure your own progress, set goals and develop an application timeline.

Does this mean you have to be just like Leslie to get into PA school?

Absolutely not, first of all, factors such as race, age, ethnicity, etc. are of no importance and you certainly don't have to be female to get into PA school  (I myself am living proof).

But, it is safe to assume that most schools are looking to keep their graduation and certifying exam pass rates high. They have an incentive to take less risks and because of this, anything below average is considered a risk.

Thus, take a good look at Leslie and focus on factors that you can control to differentiate yourself, like your academic standing, your experience, your volunteer activities, your references and your essay.

If you set the bar at Leslie, and end up being a Mother Theresa, I am pretty sure you will be accepted into PA School, although I have no data on religious preference and PA school acceptance rates. :-)

So what does an average PA school applicant who is admitted to PA school (i.e student) look like?

Let's take a look:

→ The average PA school students age is 27 years old

The average age of first-year students ranged between 25 and 28 for all categories.

Average age of Physician Assistant School Applicant

→ The average PA school student is female

The gender distribution of first-year students has started to stabilize after nearly a 20-year trend of a gradually increasing proportion of females:

  • Female: 72.4%
  • Male: 27.6% (mean)

First Year Enrollment in PA School by Gender

→ The Average PA school applicant has a bachelor’s degree

The majority of PA school applicants hold a baccalaureate degree.

  • No academic degree: 8.1%
  • Certificate: 0.2%
  • Associates Degree: 2.6%
  • Baccalaureate Degree: 70.5%
  • Master’s Degree: 6.6%
  • Doctoral Degree: 0.9%

→ Most students had four years of hands-on clinical experience prior to applying*

PA school applicants come to the table with a variety of medical experience, especially if they are strong applicants. On average, four years of prior experience in one of the following areas is common:

  • Nursing
    • Registered Nurse (RN)
    • Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)
    • Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)
  • Allied Health
    • Physical Therapist
    • Occupational Therapist
    • X-ray Technician
  • Emergency Services
    • Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
    • Paramedic
    • Emergency Room Technician
  • Miscellaneous
    • Phlebotomist (that was me!)
    • Athletic Traner
    • Medical Researcher
    • Medical Volunteer

 

Average healthcare experience years and hours of PA School Student or Applicant

* 2015-2016 update: Some recent data suggests HCE hours are significantly declining with a new average of 1.88 years of health care experience among matriculating (accepted) students.

→ SAT/GRE scores of those accepted tend to be in the above-average range

SAT scores are in the 1000-1100 range.

→ The average PA school student has between a 3.36 and 3.47 overall GPA and an undergraduate science GPA between 3.36 and 3.47

  • The average undergraduate overall GPA for PA school applicants who WERE ACCEPTED into PA school was 3.49, undergraduate science GPA was 3.36 and non science GPA was 3.56.
  • The average GPA for students who WERE NOT ACCEPTED into PA school was 3.16

Interesting factoid: As the age of applicants increases, GPA tends to be lower.

Average GPA for PA School Student Undergraduate and Science

→ Most PA school students are White

Skin color has nothing to do with acceptance rates, but it is interesting (and maybe a bit sad) to know that the vast majority of first year students were White (86.5%) followed by Asian (11.1%) and Black or African American 4.1%.

First Year Student PA School By Race and Ethnicity

→ What are your chances of being accepted into PA school?

  1. If you apply to one PA program - you have a 25% chance of getting in
  2. If you apply to 12 programs (or more) - you have a 49% chance of getting acceptance

Interesting factoid: There is no additional benefit for applying to 12 programs or more!

→ Pucker up baby, most PA students are single!

Most students are single (67.7%), though just over a quarter were married (26.4%). A little over two percent were divorced and over one percent were in a domestic partnership/civil union. Most students (85.1%) have no legal dependents. For the nearly 15% of students that reported having legal dependents other than themselves, the average number of dependents was 2.02, with a range of 1 to 7 dependents. Over 30% of respondents said they were considered a dependent of their parents.

→ Most PA students are from "The Burbs"

Half of students reported spending most of their time in a suburban setting. One quarter of respondents reported spending most of their time in a rural environment, followed by 15% in an inner-city setting.

Where do PA School Students Come From

→ PA school students don't smoke pot and are not drug dealers or part of the Italian Mafia

Over three-quarters (82.8%) of programs reported that students were required to have a background check upon matriculation to the program, while 78.7% of responding programs now mandate drug testing.

Some Important Points

It's not Rocket Science: It is important that a candidate demonstrates reasonable aptitude in the hard sciences such as anatomy and physiology, chemistry and biology. It is more likely that the committee may overlook a grade of C in U.S History or Spanish I. They will be less tolerant of a marginal grade in the sciences.

Show compassion: Your GPA is stellar and you've amassed an impressive amount of medical work experience in the little spare time you have while keeping your grades pristine, but you still get that dreaded rejection letter. Why? You didn't do enough volunteer work. Volunteering exemplifies your desire to help your fellow man—the attribute identified by schools as one of the most integral to becoming a successful PA. "Students who have had experience in working with underserved populations, rural or diverse populations, performing volunteer service or disaster relief, or other experiences that illustrate a drive and compassion for others often stand out to the admissions committee,"

Quote Run of a Ladder Thomas Henry HuxleyIt's an easy race to the bottom, so set your sights at the top: Many people will be set aback when they read that only 25% of applicants will be accepted into PA school on any given year, but this should actually be good news. Being in the top 25% in any field is not nearly as hard as it sounds, simply because the majority of the competition is in the bottom 75% and has bottom 75% qualifications. For example, you have read this entire post so you now know what the average PA school applicant who has had some success looks like. You understand what a top 75 percent applicant looks like. Your goal now is to be better than the average 75% and exceed the top 25%.  If you aim high, you will be competing with a much smaller minority, and your odds of getting an acceptance letter will increase dramatically. It also helps if you apply to 12 programs.  😉

Tables and data were sourced from:

The 28'th and 29'th PAEA Annual Report

How Much Does it Cost to go to Physician Assistant (PA) School?

HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO GO TO PA SCHOOLSo you are considering PA school great, now what?

With the average undergraduate education debt prior to PA school at $36,300 and the average anticipated debt load from PA school at $75,000-$124,000 it's probably time to ask the next logical question:

How much does PA school cost?

Like most college and advanced degree programs in the United States the price of PA school is rising.

Based on current data supplied by the American Academy of Physician Assistants and the Physician Assistant Education Association PA Program Directory:

Average Cost Across all PA Schools for the 2015-2016 Application Cycle is as Follows:

  • Cost of resident tuition (in-state) for average 26.4 month physician assistant program in 2015: $65,564
  • Cost of non-resident tuition (out-of-state) for average 26.4 month physician assistant program in 2015: $76,134

Cost of Public vs. Private PA Programs:

Public PA programs represent a significant cost savings. Today, 62.5% of PA programs are private, while only 35.6% are public.

  • The average resident tuition (in-state) for public institutions is: $38,794
  • The average resident tuition (in-state) for private institutions is: $74,426
  • The average non-resident tuition (out-of-state) for public institutions is: $68,311
  • The average non-resident tuition (out-of-state) for private institutions is: $74,523

Average Costs of PA Program Fees Public vs. Private

  • Physician assistant program fees at public institution: $5,937
  • Physician assistant program fees at private institution: $4,672

The good news is that these are averages, so the price of pa school is variable and based on factors such as private vs. public institutions, location, fees, etc. etc. For a detailed comparison of tuition cost by school make sure to check out my 2015 pa school cost comparison table or visit my paschoolfinder pa program directory website.

How much did I pay to go to PA School?

When I was attending the Rutgers University PA program in 2001 the annual tuition was approximately $10,000 per year.  Since this was a 3-year program my total cost, minus fees, was $30,000.

I was one of the lucky few who received a stipend from the National Health Service Corps and had my PA school paid for. I would suggest you look into this program as well.

How much would my same PA program cost in 2015-2016?

Here is the breakdown of my school (Rutgers) and the projected annual cost of tuition and fees for the 2015-2016 academic year.

Since they use a rather confusing credit system (this is common among PA programs) I will provide a breakdown here.

Cost of Rutgers Physician Assistant Program in 2015-2016

  • $640 per credit for residents
  • $969 per credit for non-residents

Classes and Credits:

First Professional Year

Fall Semester

Credits

Spring Semester

Credits

Microbiology 7 Integrated Anatomy & Physiology 5
Integrated Anatomy & Physiology 5 Pathology 5
Cellular & Genetic Mechanisms 4 Human Development/ Health Maintenance 3
Biochemistry 3 Neuroanatomy 2
Professionalism I 1 Electrocardiography 2
Introduction to Scientific Inquiry 1 Clinical Laboratory 3
Medical Ethics 1 Systems Histology 1

Total Credits

22

Total Credits

21

Summer Semester

Credits

Applied Clinical Research

3

Second Professional Year
Fall Semester

Credits

Spring Semester

Credits

Clinical Medicine I 11 Clinical Medicine II 2
Physical Diagnosis 3 Clinical Nutrition 1
Introduction to Radiology I 2 Psychiatry 3
Pharmacology 3 Introduction to Radiology II 1
Medical Interviewing 3 Introduction to Clinical Clerkships 2
Applied Clinical Correlates

1

Physician Assistant Internship I

12

Total Credits

23

Total Credits

21

   
Summer Semester

Credits

 

Physician Assistant Internship II

8

   
Third Professional Year
Fall Semester

Credits

Spring Semester

Credits

Physician Assistant Internship III

12

Physician Assistant Internship IV

12

Professionalism II 1

Total Credits

12

Total Credits

13

Total Credits: 123

Breakdown of in-state tuition cost:

  • First Professional Year
    • 22 + 21 + 3 = 46 credits x $640 per credit = $29,440
  • Second Professional Year
    • 23 + 21 + 8 = 52 credits x $640 per credit = $33,280
  • Third Professional Year
    • 12 + 13 = 25 credits x $640 per credit = $16,000

Total cost of in-state tuition for the 2015-2016 academic year:  $78,720   (cost in 2012: $69,524)

Breakdown of out-of-state tuition cost:

  • First Professional Year
    • 22 + 21 + 3 = 46 credits x $969 per credit = $44,574
  • Second Professional Year
    • 23 + 21 + 8 = 52 credits x $969 per credit = $50,388
  • Third Professional Year
    • 12 + 13 = 25 credits x $969 per credit = $24,225

Total cost of out-of state tuition for the 2015-2016 academic school year: $119,187

How about the Fees?

  • $10.00 Program fee per credit x 123 credits = $1,230
  • $250.00 Technology Fee with a course load of 6 credits or more
  • $50.00 General Service Fee *one-time fee
  • $75.00 Non-Refundable Registration Fee for Non-Matriculated students
  • $50.00 for Late Registration for Matriculated students
  • $100.00 Continuing Program Status Fee
  • $100.00 Maintaining Matriculation Fee
  • $ 85.00 Criminal Background Check Fee
  • The Student Health Services Fee is $350

Total in Fees:  $ 2,290

In a later blog post I will be discussing the cost of books, medical supplies and general living expenses. Unless you attend PA school on a part-time basis it is difficult to maintain a job along with a full time PA school curriculum.

Also, you may have noticed that Rutgers University has a three year PA school curriculum. How does this compare with shorter programs?

Take a look at the 2015 comparison table.

How much did your PA school cost?

Is it worth it?

Feel free to leave share your comments below.

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